Contingency tables (sometimes called crosstabs) are used to summarize and analyze the joint distribution of two variables, possibly stratified by a third. A table of observation counts will be created for each combination of the variables in the row list and each variable in the column list. If a stratum variable is specified, separate tables are created for each level of the variable. Note that these are the sample values and are not adjusted for the RDS design.


To create a contingency table, choose Contingency Tables from the Analysis menu on the menu bar of the Console window. The following window will appear.

To create a contingency table to relate the answers to two different survey questions add the row variable and column variable to the appropriate spaces and click Run. The results will appear in the Console Window.


In addition to observation counts, there are a number of additional cell values that can be displayed.

  • Percentages
    1. Row - Percentage in cell out of observations within each row
    2. Column - Percentage in cell out of observations within each column
    3. Total - Percentage in cell
  • Chi-squared
    1. Expected - The expected count of the cell if there were no relationship between the two variables
    2. Residuals - The observed count minus the expected count.
    3. Standardized residuals - The residuals standardized such that (if the two variables were independent) they have mean 0 and standard deviation 1. These residuals are useful in determining which cells of a contingency table contribute most to a significant chi-squared test.
    4. Adjusted residuals - These adjust the residuals by the row and column totals.